Instrument Flying

Operating an aircraft solely by reference to instruments.

  • Altitudes covers IFR altitude names. Also includes the definition of what you must see in order to descend below the DA/MDA.
  • Approaches covers Instrument approaches and related topics.
  • Navigation covers IFR navigation methods.

Mandatory Reporting Events


  • Missed approach
  • Airspeed ± max(10 kts, 5% change) of filed TAS
  • Reaching a holding fix (time + altitude)
  • VFR on top: changing altitude
  • ETA changed ± 2 min (3 min in the North Atlantic). Only in non-radar environments
  • Leaving a holding fix/point
  • Outer marker (or fix used in lieu of). Only in non-radar environments
  • Un-forecasted weather.
  • Safety of flight (emergencies and such)
  • Vacating an altitude/FL
  • Final approach fix. Only in non-radar environments
  • Radio/navigation/approach equipment failure
  • Compulsory reporting points. Only in non-radar environments
  • 500 - unable to climb/descend 500 FPM

Position reporting items

“Center, \$CALLSIGN, reporting \$LOCATION, \$ALTITUDE at \$TIME. On IFR flight plan. Next position \$NEXT_FIX at \$NEXT_FIX_TIME. Afterward \$SUCCEEDING_POINT. \$REMARKS

  • Aircraft ID
  • Position
  • Time
  • Altitude
  • Type of flight plan (except when communicating with ARTCC / Approach control)
  • ETA and name of next reporting fix
  • Name only of the next succeeding point along the route of flight (Point after next reporting fix)
  • Any relevant remarks

Last updated: 2021-05-29 23:05:39 -0700